Agreement Made Between Two Parties
An offer made today is unlikely to remain open for acceptance in months. Over time, it would be prescribed and hour by hour is no longer available for reception. The conclusion of the contract online has become commonplace. Many jurisdictions have passed electronic signature laws that have made the electronic contract and signature as valid as a paper contract. In the event of a contractual dispute between parties in different jurisdictions, the law applicable to a contract depends on the conflict-of-law analysis by the Court before which the infringement action is brought. In the absence of a legal choice clause, the Court generally applies either the right of jurisdiction or that of a court having the strongest connection with the subject matter of the contract. A legal choice clause allows the parties to agree in advance that their contract will be interpreted in accordance with the laws of a given jurisdiction.  In the event of a discrepancy between the offer and the acceptance, the “acceptance” is considered a counter-offer. (A mismatch between offer and acceptance is one of the things at issue in the law of error) Coercion has been defined as a “threat of harm that is made to force a person to do something against his or her will or judgment; in particular, an unlawful threat by a person to impose a manifestation of another person`s apparent misunderstanding on a transaction without real will.  One example is in Barton v Armstrong  in a person who was threatened with death if he did not sign the contract.
An innocent party wishing to cancel a contract of coercion of the person need only prove that the threat was made and that this is a reason to accede to the treaty; the burden of proof then shifts to the other party to demonstrate that the threat had no effect in getting the party to conclude the contract.